Bibliography Format For College Projections

Most performances are collective efforts that involve the work and creativity of more than one person.

Images, texts, objects, and sounds produced by artists oblige the creators and performers to negotiate rights and permissions for their use.

Although no style manual prescribes a proper format for doing so, creative and performing arts professionals must list credits for those who contributed to their work.

Film credits are extensive because the medium not only requires the acknowledgement of the many personnel involved in the production of a film, but also because making a film calls for the negotiation of numerous rights and permissions. The elements of a film or other performance —cinematography, script, music, performance, special effects, location, set, make-up, costume, editors, props, scores and so on—all need the proper recognition. In theater, these credits are recorded in the production’s program.

In addition to film, Web sites represent an example of a production that demands an elaborate negotiation of rights and permissions. Web sites consist of programming languages and scripts, images, text, fonts, graphics, and other multimedia, all of which stipulate that the user negotiate the proper rights and permissions for their use.

For more information about how rights and permissions are negotiated by creative and performing arts professionals, try Copyright Website.

Here are some examples of some ways that you can list credits or incorporate rights and permissions into your work:

  • Contact the creator or copyright owner of the image, video, sound, or text you would like to use in your creative work to request permission to do so

 

  • Credit the creator or copyright owner of images, videos, sound, and text when you use their work

 

  • List all members of your creative team in promotional materials

 

  • Comply with the conditions for use set by the creator or copyright owner

If you are a performing or visual artist, the Rights and Licenses page may help you to determine the proper way to cite the contributions of others to your work.

Bibliographic citations follow standard rules to identify and describe information sources. Researchers in Art History use the style manual published by the University of Chicago Press in The Chicago Manual of Style. It is essential to use the most recent edition of the style manual.

Depending upon their area of study, scholars may also use the style manual published by the Modern Language Association (MLA) in The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. Always check with your professor for the preferred citation format.

Rights and Licenses

Chicago Manual of Style

MLA Style

Examples have been created using the reference list format in the Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition (2017).  Consult "Recommended Resources" for detailed information and further guidance.


Basic citations are in plain text; red text indicates information you add if an online source.

  • Note #1: For online sources, ALWAYS include the name of library database (OR full URL, if citing a non-library resource).
  • Note #2: In formatting your REFERENCES (Bibliography), alphabetize source citations by author (or by title, if no author). Each entry will be a "hanging indentation" (1st line flush left; indent subsequent lines 5-10 spaces).

Analyst Report

Basic Form:

Author, "title," analyst company, publication date.

For footnote only, number each Note and provide citation page/s (or paragraph/s for online without pages).
For library databases, add database, date of accession.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Oppenheimer & Co., Inc. "Analyst Day Provides Vision, Repositioning Requires a Longer-Term Perspective." October 23, 2016. Available from Thomson One, accessed May 4, 2017.

White, Rick. "Semis-Stock Selloff a Major Buying Opportunity." Caris & Company. March 8, 2017.   Available from Thomson One, accessed June 12, 2017.

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Annual Report

Basic Form:

Company name, title, publication date, page/s cited.

For online source, add source, URL, date of accession.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Southwest Airlines Co. 2016 Annual Report. Dec. 31, 2016. http://www.southwest.com/investor_relations/2016, accessed July 12, 2017.

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Book

Basic Form:

Author, title, (publisher information, date). In Notes, list the page numbers.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Kleiner, Art. The Age of Heretics: A History of Radical Thinkers Who Reinvented Corporate Management, 2nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.

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E-mail

Basic Form:

Sender's name, 'Message Title," recipient's name, date.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Smith, John A.  "Research Question."  To Rosenfeld Librarian.  Apr. 18, 2017.

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Journal Article

Basic Form:

Author/s, "title," journal, date, page/s.

For library database, add database, date of accession.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Parlar, Mahmut, and Weng, Z. Kevin. "Coordinating pricing and production decisions in the presence of price competition." Journal of Operational Research Vol. 173 (1). April 2016. pp. 211-227. Available from Business Source Complete, accessed July 12, 2017.

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Magazine Article

Basic Form:

Author, "title," magazine, date, page/s.

For library database, add database, date of accession.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Cotton, Bill. "From office boy to CEO." Chartered Accountants Journal Vol. 85 (6). June 2017, pp. 72-75. Available from Business Source Complete, accessed July 8, 2017.

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Market Report

Basic Form:

Author, "title," market research co. if known, date of publication.

For library database, add database, date of accession.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Grau, Jeff. "Offshore Business Process Outsourcing." May, 2017. Available from eMarketer, accessed June 18, 2017.

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News Article

Basic Form:

Author, "title," newspaper, date, page/s.

For library database, add database, date of accession.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Maynard, Micheline. "Delta to Cut Up to 7,000 Jobs in Restructuring Bid." The New York Times. June 3, 2017. New York Times on the Web, accessed June 28, 2017.

Smith, Randall. "SEC Looks at How Insiders Use Exchange Funds." The Wall Street Journal. July 7, 2017. A1.

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Press Release

Basic Form:

"Title," Co. name press release, date.

For web source, add source name, URL, date of accession.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Microsoft Corp. "New Microsoft Entertainment Products Continue Transformation of Digital Media."  Microsoft Corp. press release, May 20, 2017. Microsoft Corp. website. http://www.microsoft.com/Presspass/, accessed June 23, 2017.

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SEC Documents

Basic Form:

Company name, title, (date filed with the SEC), page/s cited.

If online, add source, full URL, date of accession.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Dell, Inc. FY16-Q4 Form 10-Q for the Period Ending December 31, 2016. Filed January 2, 2017. Dell Inc. website. http://www.dell.com/reports/2016_Q4, accessed May 18, 2017.

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Website

Basic Form:

Site creator, "title," date of last update, and brief description if necessary.

In note, include URL, date of accession.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Rosenfeld Library. "Business Databases at a Glance." March, 2017. Accessed June 19, 2017.

Walt Disney Company. "Disney's Investors Relations-FAQs." Walt Disney Company website, accessed July 9, 2017.

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Database Articles from ... Factiva, Forrester, Thomson One, etc.

Basic Form:

Author, "title,"  original publication date, database, date of accession.

For library database, add database, date of accession.

Footnote / Endnote Format (N)

Bibliography Format (B)

Agins, Teri. "Suit Yourself: As Consumers Mix and Match, Fashion Industry Starts to Fray." The Wall Street Journal. April 2, 2016. Available from Factiva, accessed April 8, 2017.

Coca-Cola Company. 2016 Summary Annual Report. Dec. 31, 2016. Available from Thomson One, accessed March 20, 2017.

El Mousti, Rachid. "Planning Assumptions: U. S. Pager Market Overview." Dec. 6, 2016. Available from Forrester Research, accessed March 13, 2017.

New York State Society of Certified Public Accountants, "The nature and disclosure of fees paid to auditors: An analysis before and after the Sarbanes-Oxley Act." Table in the "United States auditors' audit and nonaudit revenue in dollars for 2005 to 2015." CPA Journal. May 2016. Vol. 76 (5), pp. 28-35. Available from Business Source Complete, accessed June 11, 2017. 

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Page last modified February 8, 2018, by Monica Hagan.

Need help?  Consult a Business Research Librarian.

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