Presentation on theme: "TRANSITIONS IN WRITING"— Presentation transcript:
1 TRANSITIONS IN WRITING
2 The prefix "trans" indicates movement from one place to another
The prefix "trans" indicates movement from one place to another. When we apply the word "transition" to our lives, such as the transition from being a high school student to being a university student, we are referring to our movement from one situation to another. Transitions in writing do the same thing: they take the writer and the reader from one place to another. They also indicate the logical relationship between where we have been and where we are going. Transitional words and phrases are like sign posts that help lead readers through an essay.
3 Common Transitional Words and Phrases
To give examples: for example, for instance, such as, specificallyTo show cause and effect: therefore, hence, thus, as a result, resulting in, so, consequentlyTo contrast: nevertheless, however, but, on the other hand, in contrast, on the contrary, conversely, at the same time, still, although, even though, despite, in spite ofTo show similarity: likewise, similarly, just as, equallyTo concede: although, even though, of course, granted, whileTo elaborate: in addition, additionally, moreover, also, furthermoreTo emphasize: more importantly, most importantly, chiefly, indeed, in fact, primarily, no doubtTo restate: again, in other words, in effect, that is, in shortTo indicate time: last, at last, eventually, before, after, afterwards, finally, during, then, when, asTo indicate place: to the right, to the left, in the background, in the foreground, in the distanceTo conclude: thus, finally, in the endCommon Transitional Words and Phrases
4 The most important transitions come between paragraphs
The most important transitions come between paragraphs. Try to establish a connection between the first sentence of a new paragraph and the last sentence of the preceding one. A linking word may be the easiest way:Ex: Thus the pattern established in the first chapter can be found throughout the rest of the first volume.Volume Two, however, offers a new approach to the narrative. . .The echo of a key phrase or word can also be effective:Ex: Daydreaming is considered by many people to be a waste of time.While some people consider daydreaming to be a waste of time
5 Ex: The evidence thus suggests that there is no other option.
The transition may require more than just a word; a transitional sentence may be required:Ex: The evidence thus suggests that there is no other option.Yet there may still be a solution. If you disregard . . .The transitional sentence does not indicate what will come next in the paragraph, but it establishes that this paragraph is a negation of the last. The transitional sentence should be followed by the topic sentence. It should not replace a topic sentence.
6 2 Problems to Avoid1)Make sure the logical connections are clear as you use transitions.Because transitions indicate relationships between words and ideas, they can be misused if the relationship indicated by the transitional words is unclear or does not exist.Example: George's wife stands at the window and looks out at the rain falling on the empty streets. For example, she sees a cat huddled under a table in the rain. ("For example" does not make sense here because the woman seeing the cat is not a clear "example" of anything in the first sentence.)
7 2) Avoid the overuse of transitions.
Transitions are supposed to guide readers through your writing, but overuse of transitional words and phrases can have the opposite effect and can make your writing confusing.Example: Writing an essay can be challenging. However, there are techniques that can make the process a little easier. For example, taking plenty of notes on the subject can help the writer generate ideas. Therefore, note-taking is an important "pre-writing" strategy. In addition, some people "free-write," writing quickly for ten or twenty minutes to see what ideas arise. However, taking notes and free-writing are only the beginning. Ideas must eventually be organized in a logical way. Consequently, an outline can help the writer make sense of the rough material generated through the note- taking and free-writing process. Therefore, writing an outline is another important step in the writing process. However, some writers are able to conceptualize a sense of logical order for their ideas without actually writing an outline. Nevertheless, these writers seem to have some kind of outline in their minds. In addition, an outline should help the writer formulate a thesis for the essay. Consequently, an outline can help give focus to the essay. (This passage could be stronger with fewer transitional words and phrases. Especially when the transitions are used at the beginnings of sentences, they can become annoying or even confusing to readers if they are overused.)
Presentation on theme: "Transitions... in your essay."— Presentation transcript:
1 Transitions...in your essay
2 Transition Words & Phrases
Use transition words and phrases to show the direction of your thoughts.A lack of transitions to aid logical flow can cause confusion.Without transitions, important ideas can be completely missed or misinterpreted.
3 Lists of Transition Words & Phrases
Addition: also, in addition, too, moreover, and, besides, furthermore, equally important, then, finallyExample: for example, for instance, thus, as an illustration, namely, specificallyContrast: but, yet, however on the one hand/on the other hand, nevertheless, nonetheless, conversely, in contrast, still, at the same timeComparison: similarly, likewise, in the same wayConcession: of course, to be sure, certainly, granted
4 More Transition Words & Phrases
Result: therefore, thus, as a result, so, accordinglySummary: hence, in short, in brief, in summary, in conclusion, finallySequence: first, second, third, next, then, finally, afterwards, before, soon, later, meanwhile, subsequently, immediately, eventually, currentlyPlace: in the front, in the foreground, in the back, in the background, at the side, adjacent, nearby, in the distance, here, there
5 Using Transition Words & Phrases
Use transition words and phrases to show the direction of your thoughts.Example without transitional phrase:Vanilla ice cream is popular in America. Other nations prefer chocolate.Example with transition phrase: Vanilla ice cream is popular in America, although other nations prefer chocolate.
6 Sentence Variety & Clarity
Combine short, choppy sentences.Vary subject-verb structure by incorporating participial phrases starting with –ing or –ed verbs.Hierarchize elements in your sentences for emphasis.Read your writing aloud to hear awkward constructions and unnecessary repetition.
7 Paragraph CoherenceMake sure the sentences in each paragraph are in logical order, usually with the topic or claim sentence first, followed by evidence.Use transitions to aid logical flow between ideas and evidence.
8 Paragraph ExampleReading about a disaster in the newspaper is different from actually experiencing it firsthand. However, grand-scale incidents, whether natural or political, touch the lives of all individuals to a certain degree. Consequently, people need to cultivate an awareness of current events.
9 Paragraph-to-Paragraph Coherence
The paragraphs in your essay should flow logically from one to another.Transition sentences concluding one paragraph and beginning another help to bridge parts of the discussion.Without transition “bridges” between paragraphs, the discussion will seem disjointed.
10 An Example and Explanation
El Pais, a Latin American country, has a new democratic government after having been a dictatorship for many years. Assume that you want to argue that El Pais is not as democratic as the conventional view would have us believe. One way to effectively organize your argument would be to present the conventional view and then to provide the reader with your critical response to this view. So, in Paragraph A you would enumerate all the reasons that someone might consider El Pais highly democratic, while in Paragraph B you would refute these points. The transition that would establish the logical connection between these two key elements of your argument would indicate to the reader that the information in paragraph B contradicts the information in paragraph A. As a result, you might organize your argument, including the transition that links paragraph A with paragraph B, in the following manner:Paragraph A: points that support the view that El Pais's new government is very democratic.Transition: Despite the previous arguments, there are many reasons to think that El Pais's new government is not as democratic as typically believed.Paragraph B: points that contradict the view that El Pais's new government is very democratic.In this case, the transition words "Despite the previous arguments," suggest that the reader should not believe paragraph A and instead should consider the writer's reasons for viewing El Pais's democracy as suspect.
11 For your information...In your Gmail you have a list of transition words that can help you with transtitioning within paragraphs and between paragraphs.
12 ReferenceTroyka, L.Q. Simon & Schuster Handbook for Writers. Fifth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ : 1999 (77-78).